吳怡蒨  回應台灣健保議題的「藥。菓  II」裝置藝術

Wu I-Chien “Bitter & Sweet  II”  Installation Art

 

時間:2018年5月19日至6月24日| Date: 19 May - 24 June, 2018

藝術家:吳怡蒨| Artist: Wu I-Chien

地點:路由藝術|Nunu Fine Art

 

想像一下你推著推車走入超市,貨櫃上琳瑯滿目排列著的既不是糖果餅乾、也不是玩具百貨,而是各式各樣治療病痛的藥物。若有朝一日藥品可如糖果任意購買,既不需要藥師許可,也不需要處方箋,你會為此便利感到欣喜若狂亦或留有一絲危機意識?

為了降低人們對用藥的警覺心與危機感,藥物不再只放在寫有小心服用字樣的棕色玻璃瓶內,一顆顆有著鮮豔色澤、甚至包裹著糖衣的藥丸被製作出來。這些藥丸以可愛的顏色與形狀呈現,襯以閃亮的錫箔紙包裝,試圖以糖果的面貌混淆視聽,讓人們把吃糖的快樂經驗置入藥物的使用。

台灣藝術家吳怡蒨以「藥」作為創作主體,將種類萬千的藥丸製成立體大型裝置探討台人用藥議題。在〈藥。菓II | Bitter & Sweet II〉的系列創作中,吳怡蒨蒐集了大量的藥物與藥盒進行創作。不論是將盒裝藥品與盒裝零食拼疊呈現、將藥物堆疊成一座座如超市囤貨塔的小山,或是將糖果與藥丸重新組合成煙花一般的絢麗圖騰,一件件歡樂的藥物裝置皆以其繽紛的視覺擄獲人心,凸顯出藥物不同於以往印象的可愛樣貌。藝術家將苦藥與糖果並置,暗喻兩者之間逐漸模糊的界線。當人們忘卻了藥物的病痛象徵,隨之而來的卻是藥物濫用與浪費等社會問題。吳怡蒨回應著台灣人們的心目中普遍存在著的「服藥有病治病,沒病強身」心態,以用藥風氣反思全民健保制度的缺失。


糖衣之下的負荷

專職藝術創作的吳怡蒨,偶然意識到國人喜愛囤積藥物的行為。她察覺到許多長輩家中藥物儲存過量,卻有如保平安似地供在桌上不願丟棄。或許對於喜愛囤放藥品的病人而言,擁有藥物如同吃糖一樣令人愉悅,買藥的心情也有著血拼購物般的滿足感。藝術家因此對藥物濫用議題產生興趣,同時也引起了她對台灣健保制度的質疑。

於是,吳怡蒨到各大小醫院蒐集過期的藥物進行創作。在此過程中,她發現了當今藥價的低廉與唾手可得,而吃藥也不再是一件痛苦與嚴肅的事。藥店櫃上所陳列的不再是單調蒼白的藥瓶,取而代之的是五顏六色的藥品包裝,以視覺刺激著人們的購買慾望;藥品名稱中的「安」、「妥」、「通」、「適」等暗示字眼,則試圖讓消費者放下戒心,彷彿一劑藥之間便能使所有問題煙消雲散;而標榜可以當作零食隨時補充的保健藥品也成為最新潮流,這些營養品遊走於藥品與食品之間,引誘消費者存著服用心安的心理而花錢囤購,儼然促成了忙碌的現代人維持自我健康的折衷方式。

當藥物不再是人們為醫治疾病才索取的品項,舉目所見的囤積與濫用即刻便轉嫁成了健保制度的負荷。台灣的健康保險以相對低廉的保費讓國民享有方便的醫療服務,自1995年開辦至今,納保率已超過99%。然而便宜的醫療服務卻造成病人濫行掛號以及用藥不實,造成每年平均健保藥費浪費了高達100億的額外開銷。當政府無力支出健保費用,藥商便被迫壓低價格,如此的惡性循環點出了全民健保看似便民實則暗藏危機的現況。

 

藝術行動的想像

吳怡蒨以藥丸裝置介入醫療議題,同時反思國人濫於用藥的當代生活型態。此等體現「社會參與」(Social Engagement)的藝術實踐,傳達了十九世紀後半以來藝術開始積極回應社會現況的後現代思想。藝術創作在六〇年代受前衛派(Avant-guard)與激浪派(Fluxus)等藝術家的推動之下,擺脫了過去現代主義服膺個人主義與藝術自主的中心思想,逐漸向「行動」與「生活」靠攏,並以此成為對社會與政治的反動。如今,「社會參與」在二十一世紀的當代藝術中已蔚為風氣,當代創作者多帶著濃厚的公民意識,以多樣的創作形式介入複雜的社會現實。

近年來流行於全球的新興語彙 ——「藝術行動主義」(Artivism),更說明了藝術(Art) 積極入世而與行動主義(Activism)漸次融合的趨勢。這些強調「參與」、「公共」等性質的創作,將過去非藝術的社會行為轉化為時下常見的藝術形式 。藝術家吳怡蒨以搜集藥丸並製作成裝置的手法回應與其切身相關的台灣健保問題,不但彰顯了台灣當代藝術的社會意識抬頭,更以靈活而敏銳的政治批判,滿足我們對於藝術與社會之關係的多元想像。從最基本的藥丸為單位出發,〈藥・菓 ll〉 以活潑有趣的創作形式與觀眾產生連結,並期許民眾在藝術及展覽的引介之下能重燃對周遭社會現況的關切。

 

 

 

Imagine you walk into a supermarket, where all the groceries on the shelves being not candies and biscuits, nor toys or any other daily products, but all kinds of medicine for illness of every description. Should there comes a day when medicine can be purchased as easily as buying candies, without the permission from pharmacists or any prescription, would you be rejoiced or feel alert?

To relax the consumers’ sense of crisis and vigilance against medication, pills are no longer kept in brown bottles covered with words of caution. Instead, they are now often produced in bright colors or even coated in sugar. Packed with shiny foils and presented in cheerful appearance, these medicines strive to replace the bitter memories of taking medicines with a pleasant feeling generated by a handful of sweets.

Taiwanese artist Wu I-Chien uses ‘medicine’ as her theme of creation. She turned thousands of pills into installations to discuss the medical situations in Taiwan. In the series of ‘Bitter & Sweet II,’ a large amount of medicine along with their packaging are collected for artistic practice. Whether they are pieced together with boxes of snacks, stacked up to the ceiling like pyramids in supermarkets, or mixed with candies and rearranged into firework patterns, together, various capsules and drugs allure people with their colorful appearance while presenting an adorable facet of medicine that overthrows past impressions. The artist juxtaposes medicine with candies, indicating a gradually blurring bindery between the two. However, when people started to forget the symbolic of illness in pills, an issue concerning uncontrolled lavishness of medicine usage has surfaced. Responding to a general belief by the Taiwanese saying that pills can provides cure in sickness and promote vitality in health, Wu I-Chien reflects upon such medical notion and bring forth the fault of our National Health Insurance(NHI) system.

 

A Sugarcoated Burden

Artist Wu I-Chien has observed that many Taiwanese, especially the elders, have the habit of stocking up medicines. They store excessive drugs at home, and are unwilling to give up their accumulations like holding on to some kind of amulets. Perhaps to these people, keeping medicine close is as comforting as having candies in their pockets, while purchasing drugs is satisfying like shopping in the malls. This custom has attracted the artist's interest, but at the same time raises her doubts about the NHI system in Taiwan.

Hence, Wu started to collect expired drugs form hospitals for her art creation. During the process, she learnt that medicines in Taiwan are not only cheap but can be easily accessed; meanwhile, taking pills is no longer a painful and serious deal. Bottles displayed in pharmacies are no longer made in plain white, but are now covered in colourful packaging, boosting people’s purchase desire with visual stimulation. Potions are entitled with words implying ‘safe,’ ‘sound,’ ‘smooth,’ and ‘comfort’ to relax the customer’s vigilance as if all that troubles could be vanished within one single dose.  Moreover, health food claiming to be suitable for any time has become the latest trend. These products make the consumers feel at ease by surviving between medicine and food, and eventually becoming a compromise of keeping health within our busy modern life.

Once medicine no longer serves as a remedy against diseases, a burden resulted from the hoarding and abuse of drugs immediately reflects on our the NHI system. The NHI in Taiwan has been providing convenient service to the public with a premium fee that is relatively low. Since its origin  in 1995, over 99% of the citizens have been benefited from this social welfare. However, the cheap medical service has led to patients randomly registering at the hospitals and misusing prescriptions and drugs. Consequently, an estimated additional expense of 10 billion NT dollars is wasted every year. Once the government has lost its ability to afford such overwhelming spending, drug companies will be forced to lower their price, resulting in a vicious cycle sugarcoated in the name of general convenience.

 

An Imagination towards Artivism  

Wu I-Chien examines medical issues with her pill installations and ponders over our modern lifestyle regarding medicine usage. Such art practice embodies the concept of ‘social engagement,’ reflecting a postmodernist stance originated from the second half of the 19th century which encourages art to actively respond to the society.  Under the influence of Avant-guard and Fluxus artists in the 60s, art creations have broken away from the ideology promoting individualism and the autonomy of art. Art has since approached ‘movements’ and ‘life,’ and become a reactionary force in society and politics. Today, ‘social engagement’ has set a trend in the 21th century art. Contemporary artists now often practice art with a keen civic awareness by stepping into the complex reality with their creations in various forms.

A new-created term emerged in recent years, ‘artivism’  has indicated a tendency of ‘art’ merging with ‘activism.’ Creations under this name emphasize notions of ‘participation’ and ‘community’ while turning non-artistic actions into common forms of contemporary art practice.  Artist Wu I-Chien creates installations out of numerous medicine as a response to the medical situations in Taiwan, not only did this implies an increase of social awareness in Taiwanese art, but also provides us another imagination of the relation between art and the society with her acute political standpoint. Starting from the basic unit of pills, “Bitter & Sweet II” creates connections with its visitors with fascinating forms of creation; meanwhile, the exhibition seeks to raise public awareness among our surroundings and current situations.